Approved by Faculty Senate

University Studies Course Proposal: Arts And Sciences Core

HUMANITIES: ART 109 Introduction to Art

Heretofore Art 109 has functioned as a large-enrollment class of about 175 students. The following is based on the presumption that the course will continue to operate in this fashion.

Requirements and learning activities that promote students' abilities to

a. Identify and understand specific elements and assumptions of Art as a Humanistic discipline:

Art 109 is designed to acquaint the general student to the role of art in human society and history. To this end students are instructed, by examining specific works of art and by text readings, in the role of art as cultural and individual expression. They are taught how art has been defined and has functioned throughout history and in various cultures. Lecture topics are chosen to disclose the capacity of art to express social, religious, political, and individual human values by visual means; hence they learn the language of art as a non-verbal means of communication.

Examinations determine the degree to which students have been able to identify and understand these issues.

b. Understand how historical context, cultural values, and gender influence perceptions and interpretations:

Students learn via lectures, videos, and their readings of the means by which the above factors of art affect its creation: how the artist perceives and processes the world in a given time and place; the circumstances of patronage and audience response, of politics, art politics, and economics; the social purposes of a given work; the intentions of the artist; the impact of prevailing and changing art theories, etc.

Examinations determine the degree to which students have understood these factors that influence the creation and interpretation of works of art.

c. Understand the role of critical analysis in interpreting and evaluating works of art:

Learning to "read" images is central to Art 109. The knowledge of the visual language of art–a language of forms, lines, shapes, colors, space, movement–carries with it the acquisition of those skills, gained through analyses of works of art in class and in the textbook, that enable students to recognize and understand the signs, symbols, and metaphors inherent in artistic expression. Drawing conclusions as to the nature of the art communication, involving the interaction of form, meaning, and context, is the goal of critical analysis in art.

Examination questions using slides of works of art measure how well the student has grasped both the role and mechanisms of critical analysis.

 

 

 

ART 109 Introduction to Art Syllabus

This course fulfills 3 credits of the Arts and Sciences Core Requirement in the Humanities area of the University Studies Program.

COURSE OBJECTIVES AND CONTENT

The following objectives address the learning outcomes for Humanities' courses in the University Studies Program.

A. To identify and understand the specific elements and assumptions of Art as a Humanistic discipline:

Art 109 is designed to acquaint the general student to the role of art in human society and history. To this end students are instructed, by examining specific works of art and by text readings, in the function of art as cultural and individual expression. You are taught how art has been defined and performed throughout history and in various cultures. Lecture topics are chosen to disclose the capacity of art to express social, religious, political, and individual human values by visual means. To learn the language of art as a non-verbal means of communication is the goal of the course.

bulletExaminations determine the degree to which students have been able to identify and understand these issues.

 

B. To understand how the historical context of a work of art, the cultural values inherent in works of art, and how gender influence perceptions and interpretations of the world and human experience:

Students learn via lectures, videos, and readings of the means by which the above factors fundamentally affect the creation of works of art and our understanding of them: how the artist perceives and processes the world in a given time and place; the circumstances of patronage and audience response, of politics, art politics, and economics; the social purposes of a given work; the intentions of the artist; the impact of prevailing and changing art theories; and others.

bulletExaminations determine the degree to which students have understood these factors.

 

C. To understand the role of critical analysis in interpreting and evaluating works of art:

Learning to "read" images is central to Art 109. The knowledge of the visual language of art–a language of forms, lines, shapes, colors, space, movement–carries with it the acquisition of those skills, gained through analyses of works of art in class and in the textbook, that enable students to recognize and understand the signs, symbols, and metaphors inherent in artistic expression. Drawing conclusions as to the nature of the art communication, involving the interaction of form, meaning, and context, is the goal of critical analysis in art.

bulletExamination questions using slides of works of art measure how well the student has grasped both the role and mechanisms of critical analysis.

 

A summary of the principal topics of the class:

 

The vocabulary of art (the visual elements of line, shape, color, space, motion)

The expressive organization of these elements into a coherent design (with respect to unity, balance, rhythm, etc.)

Questions of content and meaning (subject matter, symbols, metaphors, historical and cultural contexts)

Varieties of styles: those of individual artists and selected periods in the History of Art

Many of the major themes and the functions or purposes of art throughout history

 

The interactions among the style (the period or the artist's), the expression, and

memeaning in a work of art.

 

 

COURSE FORMAT

Lectures and occasional videos.

 

TEXT

Gilbert, Living with Art, 5th edition.

Website: www.mhhe.com/socscience/art/gilbert/

includes an "Online Learning Center"

 

REQUIREMENTS

Reading: assignments from the text; see Course Outline

Three exams and final (not cumulative)

 

EXAMS

All exams will be in the multiple choice format. Some questions will be keyed to slides (works of art reproduced in your text). A certain number of these will require identifying the artist who created the work and also (for the Final) the style of the work. See the Course Outline for the material for which you are responsible for each exam. For sample test questions, see page 7.

 

For each exam, you will need to purchase SCAN-TRON FORM 882 from the bookstore. ALSO, MEMORIZE YOUR WARRIOR/TECH NUMBER WHICH YOU WILL RECORD ON YOUR EXAM SHEET.

NO MAKE-UPS GIVEN. If you have a legitimate reason for missing an exam, I may excuse you from the test, but this means your other marks will be weighted more heavily. Each case considered on an individual basis: a student must first present to me in writing the reason for missing an exam, with your name and warrior number included, and documentation verifying the reason for your absence from an exam.

GRADING

NOTE: There is no provision for doing "extra work" or earning "extra credit" to compensate for poor performance on exams.

 

Course grades are determined by the sum of the raw, numerical, scores of the four individual exams. The total number of points (questions) is 175 for the entire course. Of these ONLY 161 are counted toward your final grade.

The following scale determines your letter grade for the course:

144-161 A 105-127 C 0-86 E

128-143 B 87-104 D

If a large proportion of students fall into the lower range of grades, the scale will be adjusted accordingly.

 

So that you may gauge your progress in the class, approximate letter grades are provided for each exam; however, they are not used in calculating your final grade. Be aware, therefore, that simply averaging your letter grades is not a reliable estimate of your course grade: the separate tests do not always have the same number of points and therefore are not of equal weight. Moreover, simple averaging does not allow for the built-in 14 point advantage.

 

P/NC students must earn a grade of at least a "C" to merit a "P" grade. In addition, these students must take all exams whether or not they are needed to pass the course.

 

Any student who cheats in any way will fail the course.

WATKINS ART GALLERY EXHIBITIONS

Do avail yourself of the opportunity to experience "live" art at the series of changing art exhibitions in the Watkins Hall Art Gallery. These change about once a month, offering a variety of styles, media, and approaches to contemporary art. Slide talks by artists showing their work are a regular part of the gallery program.

COURSE OUTLINE AND APPROXIMATE TIMETABLE

The topics that follow embrace those activities and requirements, as stated on page 1,
expected of Humanities courses in the University Studies Program. Such activities and requirements promote the abilities of ART 109 students to

A. Identify and understand the specific elements and assumptions of           Art as a Humanistic discipline.

B. Understand how historical context, cultural values, and gender           influence perceptions and interpretations.

C. Understand the role of critical analysis in interpreting and           evaluating works of art.

MATERIAL FOR EXAM I: Chapters 1, 2, 4, & 5. Pay special attention to those works of art discussed in the lectures that are ALSO illustrated in the assigned chapters. You will need to know pertinent information about these works as discussed both in the text and in class. In addition to the assigned chapters you are also responsible for selected ARTISTS and biographical information about them (appearing on the page number following the artist’s name, together with their works. It is these works for which you will be asked to identify the artists by name. See list below.

WEEK

LIVING WITH ART (Chapter 1, read only) 1

 

THE NATURE OF ART (Ch. 2)

 

A. What is art? 1-2

Beauty?

•Unified visual statement?

•Imitation?

•Expression?

•Communication?

B. The Subject Matter of Art

C. The Content of Art (and Iconographic Analysis)

D. The Concept of Style

E. Representation versus Abstraction

For B, C, and D above, see "Key Terms," p. 8 of this syllabus.

THE LANGUAGE OF ART (Chs. 4, 5) 3-4

A. The Visual Elements (See syllabus, "Attributes of Color," p. 9)

B. Principles of Design

Text pages including artists, their biographies, and their works, for

which you are responsible:

DURER 42, 41-43

LEONARDO 407, 406, 407, 414-16

MATISSE 133, 82-83, 128-29, 132

TOULOUSE-LAUTREC 17, 16, 205

WARHOL 211, 130-31, 210

EXAM I: Date to be announced. 5

 

MATERIAL FOR EXAM II: Ch. 11, 13. Pay special attention to those works of art discussed in the lectures that are ALSO illustrated in the assigned chapters. You will need to know pertinent information about these works as discussed both in the text and in class. In addition to the assigned chapters you are also responsible for selected ARTISTS and biographical information about them (appearing on the page number following the artist’s name, together with their works. It is these works for which you will be asked to identify the artists by name. See list below.

SCULPTURE (Ch. 11) 5-6

A. The Third Dimensinon: Sculpture in the "Round"; in Relief

B. Additive Modes

1. Modelling

C. Subtractive Modes

1. Casting (from Modelling)

2. Carving

3. Assemblage (derives from Collage)

a. Motion and Light

b. Sculpture and the Environment

—sculpture as architecture

—sculpture to create an environment

—sculpture as landscape art

ARCHITECTURE (ch. 13, see syllabus, Architecture Study Guide, p. 10-11) 7

A. Structural Systems

1. Loadbearing 2. Post and Lintel

3. The Arch 4. Vaults

5. Domes 6. Geodesic Domes

7. Metal Frame construction 8. Reinforced Concrete

9. Post-Modern Architecture

B. Approaches to Design

C. Correspondences between Building Styles of the Past and Present.

Text pages indicating artists, their biographies, and works, for which you are responsible:

 

CHRISTO 287, 286-88 FULLER 322, 321

PICASSO 468, Collage 187-88 NEVELSON 276, 122, 277

RAUSCHENBERG 208, 59, 209, 485 SMITH 275, 274

 

Exam II: Date to be announced. 8

 

MATERIAL FOR EXAM III: Chapter 3 to p. 63, plus the following topics and artists. The artists in CAPITALS AND BOLDFACE are those whose biographies you will need to know. The biographical sketch for the artist appears on the page number following the name; other pages refer to works by the artist. It is these artists and their works that you will be asked to recognize and identify. As to the remaining works on the list, you will not have to identify their artists; however, for all the works listed here and in ch. 3, you will be asked pertinent information.

 

CONTENT, STYLE, AND ARTIST

A. THE REAL WORLD 9

    1. Birth, Marriage, and Death (ch. 3)

 

a. The Burghers of Calais: Rodin 279

b. King Tut 358-59, 278

2. Everyday Life: Work and Play (ch. 3)

 

3. People

a Egyptian Seated Scribe 355

b. REMBRANDT 163, Night Watch 436-37

c. Marilyn Monroe: Flack 44, WARHOL 211, 210

GOYA 141, Until Death 201

d. Artists: Self-Portraits as public statements

van Eyck 178, DURER 42, 42; REMBRANDT 163; Goya 141; PICASSO 27

 

4. The City and the Rise of Technology

a. 17th Century Venice: Canaletto 116-17

b. 19th Century Paris: MANET 457, 456-58; Renoir 62

c. 20th century New York:

—immigration: STIEGLITZ 229, 228

—skyscrapers:

architecture: 317-19, 329-31; images: Marin 182-83

5. Politics and Social Consciousness (ch. 3)

a. Rulers: Ceasar Augustus (ch. 3)

b. Revolutionaries: David 445-46, GOYA 140

c. "Darkness and Light": PICASSO 468, 56-58

LAWRENCE 177, 58; Lange 234-35, Parks 220,

RAUSCHENBERG 208, 59

B. The "other" and "inner" worlds 10-11

1. Magic and Ritual

a. Prehistoric Art 344-50

b. North America and Africa

Serpent Mound 285

Bella Coola Mask 300

Kneeling Woman 532-33

 

2. Faith and Religion (ch. 3)

a. Chinese painting of a Buddhist Temple 510; Tibetan Buddha 50

b. The Cathedral of Chartres, France, 48-49, 311-13, 388-90

3. Myth, Fantasy, and the Irrational

a. Redon, Orpheus 74

 

b. Bosch, Chagall, and Dali (ch. 3)

c. Oldenburg 95

 

Text pages including artists and their biographies for which you are responsible. For their works, see above:

 

DURER 42 GOYA 141 LAWRENCE 177

MANET 449 PICASSO 468 RAUSCHENBERG 208

REMBRANDT 163 STIEGLITZ 229 VAN GOGH 13

WARHOL 211

EXAM III: Date to be announced. 12

 

MATERIAL FOR FINAL EXAM: Pp. 63-70 (ch. 3) plus the following topics and artists (and art people). The artists in CAPITALS AND BOLDFACE are those whose biographies you will need to know. The biographical sketch for the artist appears on the page number following the name; other pages refer to works by the artist. It is these artists and their works that you will be asked to recognize and identify. As to the remaining works on the list, you will not have to identify their artists; however, for all the works listed here and on pp. 63-70, you will be asked pertinent information.

 

 

For the artists and material contained in sections B and C (below), you must be prepared to name the style of the works listed.

 

A. Nature (pp. 63-70) 13

1. The Landscape

a. Giorgione 414

b. Asian Art: HOKUSAI 195, 194; Sesshu 182-83

c. CEZANNE 67, 66, 85

A. 2. Nature as Microcosm

a. O'KEEFFE 69, 68, 229; Weston 227

3. Nature in the Architecture of WRIGHT 337, 336, 110-11

B. THE CLASSICAL TRADITION IN WESTERN ART:

FROM GREECE TO CUBISM 14

1. Athens in the Fifth Century BC:

a. PERICLES 369, 368-70

b. The Parthenon, 47, 307-08, 368-70, The Three Goddesses, 370

2. Rome in the First and Second Centuries AD:

a. The Pantheon, 313, 378-79

3. The Renaissance, 16th Century

a. MICHELANGELO 409, 88, 410-13

—Classical Greek Spearbearer, 370

b. LEONARDO 407, 114-16, 405-07

c. RAPHAEL 91, 90-91, 154, 174

B. 4. The Neo-classical Period, 19th Century

a. Jefferson, University of Virginia, 340-41

b. The US Capitol

5. Modern Versions of Classicism, 20th Century

a. Cubism: PICASSO 468, 27, 56-58, 152-53, 466-469

b. GERTRUDE STEIN, 14

c. Mondrian, 92-93, 148-49

C. THE "SUBJECTIVE" TRADITIONS:

FROM LATE GREECE TO EXPRESSIONISM 15

1. Late Greek Art (Hellenistic, Third-Second Centuries BC):

a. Laoco÷n Group, 372-73

2. The Baroque Period (Post-Renaissance), 17th Century

a. BERNINI 427, 272-73, 426-28

3. The Romantic Period, 19th Century:

a. Read/review Goya, 141; Gericault, 86-87

4. Modern Expressionism, 19th-20th Centuries

a. VAN GOGH 13, 12-13, 32, 193, 461; THEO VAN GOGH, 45

b. POLLOCK 35, 34-35, 481-82

Text pages including artists and "art people"* and their biographies for

which you are responsible. For artists’ works, see above:

 

BERNINI 427 CEZANNE 67 HOKUSAI 195

LEONARDO 407 MICHELANGELO 409 O’KEEFFE 69

PERICLES* 369 PICASSO 468 POLLOCK 35

RAPHAEL 91 STEIN* 14 VAN GOGH, THEO* 45

VAN GOGH, VINCENT 13 WRIGHT 337

FINAL EXAM: Date

 

SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS: All Exams

1. Which of the following is NOT a type of color harmony?

a. Analogous b. Complementary c. Triad

d. Radiating e. Monochrome

 

The above question is similar to those involving categories of information or classifications of material as organized in the text and in the lectures. It is also an example of a question stated in the negative.

The next example illustrates a biographical question (see list of artists in your syllabus for

Exam I).

2. This artist was born into an aristocratic family and dwarfed at an early age. He did numerous posters for Paris night clubs, often exploring the unsavory side of city life.

a. Warhol b. Durer c. Toulouse-Lautrec

d. Matisse e. Leonardo

 

Questions 3 and 4 are examples of slide questions.

(On the screen is a slide of the Cycladic Statuette of a Woman, p. 30 in text).

3. This sculpture

a. comes from one of the islands off the coast of England

b. is of recent date

c. is an abstract conception of a female figure

d. was carved in Graeco-Roman times

e. is not very realistic because the artist was not very skillful

For the next question see the list of artists and works in your syllabus for Exam I.

(On the screen is a slide of Durer’s Adam and Eve, p. 41 of the text.)

4. Identify the artist who painted this work. Choose from:

a. Matisse b. Durer c. Warhol d. Toulouse-Lautrec

These same types of questions will appear on subsequent exams. Of course, not all exam questions will be this straightforward.

 

BE SURE TO BRING #2 PENCILS TO ALL EXAMS, IN ADDITION TO SCANTRON FORM 882 OR 882-E. ALSO, KNOW YOUR WARRIOR/TECH NUMBER.

KEY TERMS USED IN ART STUDIES: These terms provide a conceptual framework for understanding works of art.

I. What the work of art is about.

SUBJECT MATTER

That which is depicted in the work as follows:

 

A. Human figures: bulletthe image may be a portrait; that is, a representation of a real human being, though a likeness is not always necessary bulletothers may simply be models, nudes, or "characters" in a genre scene (everyday life), or drawn from literature or history (history paintings may include portraits)

 

B. Landscapes, cityscapes, interiors bulletmay be real places or imaginary

 

C. Objects bulletif on a tabletop, then a still life painting bulletoften combined with other subjects, as above

 

CONTENT

•What the work means, or what the artist is communicating

•Relates to the subject matter and sometimes the form (see below) given to the subject matter

•May refer to emotions/feelings, ideas, concepts, values, beliefs

•May also apply to abstractions or non-representational works

 

ICONOGRAPHY

•A way of arriving at an understanding of the content

•A field of study that explores the relationship between the subject matter and the use of symbols or signs

•Most often a term used in connection with the meanings of religious art, though not always

 

II. What the work of art looks like.

FORM

•The visual character of a work; evident by the manner with which the visual elements (text, ch. 4) and principles of design (text, ch. 5) are used

•Determines how the subject matter is presented and has the potential of influencing the content

STYLE

•An outcome of the form of the work embracing sets of visual characteristics shared by a group of works of art (either those by single artist or by a number of artists) that recur or are constant over a given span of time

•Some styles are revived after an interval of time, such as the revival of Classical Graeco-Roman art during the Italian Renaissance

ATTRIBUTES OF COLOR, Ch. 4

LIGHT

When present = white = all colors of the visible spectrum (e.g. rainbow)

When absent = no colors = black

PIGMENTS

White = absence of color

Black = all colors combined

Black is produced by mixing complementary hues (those exactly opposite each other on the color wheel; see below). In actual practice sometimes brown results.

 

HUE (Name Of Color: See Color Wheel)

Primary (red, yellow, blue)

Secondary (green, violet, orange)

Intermediate/tertiary (6 hues between A & B)

VALUE (Relative Darkness Or Lightness Of A Hue)

The normal value of a hue = the value at which it achieves its greatest intensity

(e.g. yellow = highest value on wheel; violet = lowest value)

 

Shades = below normal value (add black or complement)

Tints = above normal value (add white)

Grays = (add black + white)

 

INTENSITY/CHROMA/BRILLIANCE

The "purity" of a given hue, i.e. before adding white or black

High vs. low intensity: corresponds to changes in value

TONE

 

Denotes the relationship between intensity and value: the "purity" or brilliance of a hue will be diminished by the presence of its complement, black, or white within the hue.

 

COLOR "TEMPERATURE"

Warm: reds to yellows

Cool: greens to violet

HARMONIES (to achieve a unified effect)

Complementary (greatest contrast: due to principle of "afterimage")

—hues exactly opposite on wheel

Analogous (less contrast)

—neighboring hues on wheel

Triad

any three hues equidistant on wheel

Monochrome (less contrast)

single hue (different values/intensities)

 

 

 

 

ARCHITECTURE STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 13

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS AND STYLES ASSOCIATED WITH THEM

Know the bold, underlined, and italicized terms below and what they signify: how they function in supporting a structure, and the extent to which they facilitate the creation of spatial volumes.

Learn and be able to recognize examples of buildings employing these structural systems, and to idenfify the styles specified.

In addition, be aware of specific building types, i.e. churches, office buildings, etc., and how they vary according to style.

 

 

TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE

Loadbearing used by many cultures and in many styles throughout the history of art

 

Post and Lintel used in Greek Architecture and in previous styles

Greek Architectural Orders

 

Doric

Ionic

The Arch exploited by the Romans, though in use much earlier

 

Vaulting Systems based on the arch

Roman style

 

Barrel

Groin

Dome

Vaulting Systems used in the European Middle Ages:

Gothic style

 

Ribbed groin vaults

From the Roman, but the Medieval version differs in the use ofpointed arches and the insertion of reinforcing ribs under the groins (joints)

Supported in large part by "flying" buttresses on the exteriors of the buildings

 

Domes devised by the Romans, but adapted to other styles in different parts of the world

 

MODERN ARCHITECTURE

Geodesic Dome invented by Buckminster Fuller

 

High tech engineering results in more flexible domes than previously

 

 

Metal Frame construction

Cast Iron

Developed in the 19th century for industrial and commercial buildings

Structural Steel

Developed in conjunction with the first skyscrapers and eventually used in all types of buildings

Post World War II buildings in the International Style best exemplify the "expression" of the Metal Frame

 

Reinforced Concrete

Flexible medium resulting in "sculptural" building forms

Post-Modern Architecture of the late 20th century

Uses many techniques and stylistic elements from past styles in imaginative combinations

 

APPROACHES TO DESIGN

•Rhythm •Symmetry •Asymmetry

CORRESPONDENCES

•between building styles of the past and present

•between architecture and sculpture