Approved by Faculty Senate

Chemistry 209: General, Organic, and Biochemistry (Lecture and Lab – 4 s.h.)

Purpose:

The purpose of this course is for students to become familiar with molecular structure in organic
chemistry and its influence in biochemical processes. Students will be provided with an understanding
of chemical reactions through the development of fundamentals at an experimental level. When the
course is finished, they will have an enhanced understanding of the interrelationships between the
macroscopic and the microscopic worlds. They will be able to draw on chemical principles to
explain concepts relevant to health and science education fields.

Catalog Description:

The second course in the introductory sequence (208, 209) in the principles of chemistry and the molecular
basis for life; descriptive, theoretical and laboratory topics. Covers organic and biochemistry. Three lecture
and two laboratory/discussion hours per week. Recommended for pre-nursing, pre-agriculture, pre-forestry,
and pre-fishery and wildlife students. CHEM 209 cannot substitute for CHEM 213. This sequence should not
be elected by students expecting to take CHEM 340, CHEM 350 or CHEM 400. Offered yearly.

This course includes requirements and learning activities that promote students' abilities to...

a. understand how scientists approach and solve problems in the natural sciences

Requirements: Students learn the atomic characteristics of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These physical characteristics are used to understand the intermolecular relationships and the susceptibility of compounds to reactions. Students are expected to recognize the different characteristics of reaction conditions and how these lead to new compounds.

Activities: Students are provided with many opportunities to apply course concepts. Instructor-led problem solving and discussions are carried out during lecture. Students are required to solve out-of-class problems and laboratory exercises. Demonstrations are used to illustrate three-dimensional concepts. For example, molecular models are used to build compounds to understand the spatial relationship between atoms and bonds. They also carry out acid/base experiments that illustrate how compounds can be separated and isolated based on their chemical characteristics.

b. apply those methods to solve problems that arise in the natural sciences

Requirements: Students are expected to predict molecular shape and reactivity based on the reaction conditions used. Step by step explanation of logical inferences are expected.

Activities: Students use their understanding of three-dimensional shape to predict the reactions that occur based on the reagents presented. They are able to predict outcomes by applying various techniques, such as pattern recognition and trend analysis, to solve many problems during laboratories and class assignments.

c. use inductive reasoning, mathematics, or statistics to solve problems in natural science

Requirements: Inductive reasoning is required to solve problems that are presented. The skills developed during molecular recognition are utilized to solve problems with unfamiliar compounds. Students are presented with many problems and laboratory exercises that require these skills.

Activities: Homework assignments, in-class exercises, and laboratory experiments/reports lead to successful reaction predictions. Students are required to use inductive reasoning in explaining experimental results.

 

d. engage in independent and collaborative learning

Requirements: Students are expected to work in pairs to collect several experimental data sets. Collaboration is also encouraged during out-of-class assignments. Although they are encouraged to discuss data analysis and interpretation in a collaborative manner, students are required to hand in assignments that are written independently.

Activities: Students work in pairs in data collection. Analysis is done collaboratively with encouraged discussion in order to draw out explanations and conclusions that are reported individually. Lecture activities, such as group discussions and problem solving are used to reinforce difficult concepts.

e. identify, find, and use the tools of information science as it relates to natural science

Requirements: Students are required to employ several tools of information science. They are required to utilize chemistry and other scientific journals and references to acquire physical data. They are also required to use these resources and electronic published reports to explain assigned application studies.

Activities: Many laboratory exercises require students to search for relevant information on physical and chemical properties before, during and after the experiments. Students are assigned research papers relating the current applications of organic/biochemistry to current daily issues.

f. critically evaluate both source and content of scientific information:

Requirements: Students are required to critically evaluate laboratory results. They must draw conclusions between the expected and unexpected. Chemical concepts covered in lecture assignments are used as sources of critique for these experiments.

Activities: Students carry out experiments in small groups. Based on the outcomes, they are given lab reports to assess the success of their laboratory techniques. They can then compare results, such as percent yield, to the results that would be expected under ideal conditions. Students are also assigned out-of-class research activities that are designed to help students evaluate everyday process based on what they have learned. These activities are designed to allow students the opportunity to critically evaluate both source and content of chemical information.

g. recognize and correct scientific misconceptions:

Requirements: Many chemical concepts (such as electronic and molecular structures) are difficult and abstract. Students are taught to recognize misconceptions in chemical concepts and how to revise and correct with proper perspectives.

Activities: Molecular modeling activities are carried out to give students the opportunity to see the relationships between how two-dimensional representations inaccurately represent three-dimensional structure. Trend analysis is used to recognize that acidic properties are inaccurately assumed to be solely protic. Literature research projects are used to outline misconceived ideas about organic and biochemistry.

 

This course also satisfies the laboratory requirement in the Natural Sciences and will additionally provide students with the opportunity to practice scientific inquiry through hands-on investigations and to analyze and report the results of those investigations.

Requirements: Students are required to carry out and complete laboratory investigations. A pre-lab and a post lab report are required during these experiments. The laboratory portion of this course is required to ensure students gain practical and hands-on experience in chemical procedures.

Activities: The weekly hands-on approach requires activities such as: preparatory lab studies which involve reviewing and searching of relevant concept/information before doing the actual experiments, learning/practicing/performing experimental techniques, collection of data with modern instrumentation, analysis of results, and interpretation and discussion of results to draw conclusions. These activities are summarized in the post-laboratory report. These hands-on investigations give students enhanced learning opportunities and increase their appreciation of the chemical concepts that are covered in the course.

Sample Syllabus (will vary from instructor to instructor)
WINONA STATE UNIVERSITY
Chemistry 209- Fall Semester -2000

Webpage: http://course1.winona.edu/facultyname/

Instructor: Chemistry Faculty (PA 31**, 457-52**)
Lectures: M W F 8 – 8:50 a.m. PA 309
Labs: R 3:30 - 5:20 a.m. PA 308

Required Materials:
Bettleheim, March, Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 5th Ed.
Hein, Lab Manual for Chem 209, Fall 2000.
Splash-proof Safety Goggles
Laboratory Gloves

Other Resources:
Bettleheim, March, Study Guide to Accompany Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry,5th Ed.

Objectives:
-To become familiar with molecular structure in organic chemistry and its influence in biochemical processes.

        -To draw on chemical principles to explain concepts relevant to health science fields.

        -To provide students with an understanding of chemical reactions through the development
         of fundamentals at an experimental level.

        -To enhance understanding of the interrelationships between the macroscopic and the microscopic worlds.

Course Description: General, Organic, and Biochemistry II (4 s.h.)

This course will give an overview of chemistry and the relevance it has in health science fields. This course is a continuation of a chemistry sequence that requires application and knowledge of general chemistry to learn organic and biochemistry. However, no previous organic or biochemical knowledge will be expected. By first viewing structures of compounds on a molecular basis, connections will be drawn between structure and chemical application. Once the basis for organic chemistry is fully understood, then the content of this course will begin to outline biochemical reactions. The two portions of the class will easily be bridged by first laying the foundation of organic chemistry at a molecular level. It will be learned that concepts, such as alcohols and amines, in the organic portion of the class drive the biochemical aspect of metabolic processes.

 

Laboratory

The laboratory component of this course is required and gives students hands-on experience in studying the concepts that are offered in this course. Completion of the lab grade will include both attendances at all laboratory periods and completion of lab assignments. These laboratory studies are chosen so that they are carried out concurrently with the lecture material to help understand the actual reactions that occur. For example, aspirin will be synthesized in the laboratory. Besides having medical relevance, aspirin is a compound that can be used to illustrate the esterification process. These weekly exercises include hands-on activities such as: reviewing and searching of relevant concept/information before doing the actual experiments to complete pre-lab exercises, learning/practicing/performing experimental techniques, collecting data with modern instrumentation, analyzing results, interpreting/discussing data (relative to models), making conclusions, and summarization of these activities in writing a post-laboratory report. The experiments will carried out in groups of two but each individual is responsible for submitting a post-lab report. Post-lab assignments are due at the beginning of the following lab. The lab component will account for ~20 % of the total final course grade. If a missed lab period cannot be avoided, it may be possible for students having a valid excuse to make up a research assignment before the regularly scheduled lab period. Missed experiments will result in a zero (F). Additional missed experiments will result in reduction of the final course grade by one-half a grade. No student will be allowed to take part in the lab if the pre-lab assignment has not been turned in on time. These hands-on investigations will give you an enhanced appreciation and understanding of organic chemistry and its impact on the biochemical world. Therefore, the completion of these laboratory studies will promote your ability to achieve Outcomes a to g.

 

Completion of this course will include requirements and learning activities that promote your abilities to achieve the following Outcomes:

a. to understand how scientists approach and solve problems in the natural sciences;

b. to apply those methods to solve problems that arise in the natural sciences;

c. to use inductive reasoning, mathematics, or statistics to solve problems in natural science;

d. to engage in independent and collaborative learning;

e. to identify, find, and use the tools of information science as it relates to natural science;

f. to critically evaluate both source and content of scientific information; and

g. to recognize and correct scientific misconceptions.

Also this course satisfies the laboratory requirement in the Natural Sciences and will additionally provide you
the opportunity to practice scientific inquiry through hands-on investigations and to analyze and report the
results of those investigations.

Course Details/Requirements/Activities:

In order to do well or pass the course, the students are expected to:

 

1.  attend and participate in lecture-discussion-tutorial sessions                   [Outcomes a, b, c, g]

2. complete and turn in assigned laboratory studies/reports,                     [Outcomes a, b, c, d, e, f, g]

3. look over assigned chapters and work through text problems for
        grading, [Outcomes a, b, c, d, g]

                                        4. research literature topics and turn in written reports,
                                                        [Outcomes c. d, e, f]

5. prepare for experiments by completing pre-lab exercises using            relevant information from scientific literature both in the library and in            electronic media, [Outcome e, f, g] and

6.     pass, in general, quizzes and tests. [Outcomes a, b, c, d]

The studies of these chemistry concepts involve purposeful studies of covered textbook sections, attendance
and participation in lecture and discussion, and completion of homework assignments. The lecture material is
also complemented by in-class chemical demonstrations/simulations and computer visualizations (molecular
modeling and graphical interpretations). Furthermore, these chemistry concepts are supplemented with
hands-on laboratory exercises. Successful completion of studies of these lecture topics will promote your ability to achieve Outcomes a to g

Exams:
There will be four (4) exams worth 80-90 points administered over the semester. Each exam will consist of a
multiple-form exam including three or more of the following types of problems: short answer, reaction equations/ fill-in-the-blank, true/false, multiple choice, and short problems. Lab material is considered fair game. No make-up
exams will be offered. However, if an event should arise to make missing an exam unavoidable, the grade for the
final exam will also be used for calculation of the regularly scheduled exam. These assessments will be worth 35%
of your total grade. The final exam will be cumulative for 20% of your grade.

Homework Assignments:
There will be several homework assignments during the semester that will be graded. Most of the homework
assignments will involve doing problems that will be assigned during the lecture period. However, only 2 to 4
of the homework problems will be graded. It will be in your best interest to do all of them for practice. These
problems will be collected at the beginning of lecture on Fridays. If an exam is scheduled for that day, no
homework assignment will be collected. Occasionally, a writing assignment may be assigned, requiring the
application of concepts learned to daily issues. These assignments will require explanation and thought but need
not be wordy. Generally, 1-2 pages of typewritten material are sufficient for these assignments. The writing
assignments will be announced ahead of time. All of the homework assignments will account for 20% of your
grade.

Writing Conduct:
Any acts of plagiarism will be subject to grade penalization. Plagiarism is defined as:

    1. Failure to cite quotations and borrowed ideas.
    2. Failure to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks.
    3. Failure to write thoughts in your own words (i.e. copying directly from another source.) Literature, procedures, and other people’s work are considered the authors’ own and must be documented appropriately.

Grading:

Scale: A 90% (1000 pts. possible)

B 80%

C 70%

D 55%

 

Lab Schedule: Exam Schedule:

Aug. 31 - no lab Exam 1- Fri. Sept. 22

Sept. 7 - Molecular Models: Shapes and Isomerism, Part I Exam 2- Fri. Oct. 20

Sept.14 - Check-in, Molecular Models: Shapes and Isomerism, Part II Exam 3- Wed. Nov. 8

Sept. 21 - Functional Group Identification Exam 4- Wed. Dec. 6

Sept. 28 - Solubility as an Extraction Tool Final- Dec. 11, 8-10 a.m.

Oct. 5 - The Synthesis and Study of Aspirin

Oct. 12 - Reduction of 2-Methylcyclohexanone

Oct. 19 - no lab, extra activity day

Oct. 26 - Esterification in Organic Synthesis

Nov. 2 - Carbohydrates

Nov. 9 - Analysis of Lipids, Part I

Nov. 16 - Analysis of Lipids, Part II

Nov. 30 - Amino Acids and Proteins, Check-out

Dec. 7 - no lab, extra activity day