Approved by University Studies Sub-committee.  A2C2 action pending.

University Studies Course Approval

Department or Program: Geoscience

Course Number: 240

Course Title: Hydrogeology

Catalog Description:

Examination of the hydrologic cycle and surface-water and ground-water

relationships. Study of interrelationship of water and earth materials,

including ground-water occurrence, movement and determination of aquifer

characteristics. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: GEOS 130. Offered

yearly.

This is an existing course that has previously been approved by A2C2 ___X__.

OR

This is a new course proposal ______. (If this is a new course proposal,

the WSU Curriculum Approval Form must also be completed as in the process

prescribed by WSU Regulation 3-4.)

Department Contact Person for this course: Dr. Rebecca Ambers

Email: rambers@winona.edu

 

The proposed course is designed to satisfy the requirements in (select one

area only):

Course Requirements

A. Basic Skills: (October 4, 2000)

______ 1. College Reading and Writing

______ 2. Oral Communication

______ 3. Mathematics

______ 4. Physical Development and

Wellness

B. Arts & Sciences Core: (November 1, 2000)

______ 1. Humanities

______ 2. Natural Science

______ 3. Social Science

______ 4. Fine & Performing Arts

 

C. Unity and Diversity: (January 17, 2001)

___X__ 1. Critical Analysis

______ 2. Science and Social Policy

______ 3. a. Global Perspectives

______ b. Multicultural Perspectives

______ 4. a. Contemporary Citizenship

______ b. Democratic Institutions

Flagged Courses: (February 14, 2001)

______ 1. Writing

______ 2. Oral

______ 3. a. Mathematics/ Statistics

______ b. Critical Analysis

 

Approval/Disapproval Recommendations

 

Department Recommendation: Approved_____ Disapproved____ Date______

 

Chairperson Signature_______________________ Date ______

 

Dean's Recommendation: Approved_____ Disapproved ____* Date:______

Dean's Signature_______________________ Date______

*In the case of a Dean's recommendation to disapprove a proposal a written

rationale for the recommendation to disapprove shall be provided to USS

USS Recommendation: Approved_____ Disapproved____ Date ______

 

University Studies Director's Signature_______________________

Date ______

 

A2C2 Recommendation: Approved_____ Disapproved_____ Date ______

 

A2C2 Chairperson Signature_______________________ Date ______

 

Faculty Senate Recommendation: Approved_____ Disapproved____ Date ______

 

FA President's Signature_______________________ Date ______

 

Academic Vice President's Recommendation: Approved_____ Disapproved____

Date ______

VP's Signature_______________________ Date ______

 

President's Decision: Approved_____ Disapproved____ Date ______

 

President's Signature_______________________ Date ______

 

Critical Analysis courses in the University Studies program are

devoted to teaching critical thinking or analytic problem-solving skills.

These skills include the ability to identify sound arguments and

distinguish them from fallacious ones. The objective of these courses is to

develop students' abilities to effectively use the process of critical

analysis. Disciplinary examples should be selected to support the

development of critical analysis skills.

From a scientist's perspective, critical analysis skills are important

because they are central to the nature of science as a discipline and form

the basis for the practice of science as a career. Science is not so much

a body of knowledge as it is the process of creating, evaluating, and

testing hypotheses about the way the world works. In order to become

effective scientists who can participate in both the creation of knowledge

and the critical evaluation of others' research, students must learn how

think critically. Even for students who choose a career outside of

science, the critical thinking skills gaining in a course like Hydrogeology

are an invaluable tool for addressing all sorts of problems that may be

encountered in life.

Hydrogeology (GEOS 240) is a course required for Environmental Science

majors that is also taken by many geoscience majors as an elective. The

course is taught every fall, and enrollments of between 15 and 25 students

are typical. In addition to exposing students to the side of geoscience

that relates to water, the nature of the subject provides an excellent

opportunity to engage students in evaluating, manipulating, and analyzing

scientific data to solve hydrogeologic problems of importance to people.

These skills are developed through readings, discussions, in-class

exercises, and laboratory exercises and tested on examinations. Use of

spreadsheets for data analysis is particularly emphasized, and real data

sets are utilized whenever possible.

 

These courses must include requirements and learning activities that

promote students' abilities to...

a. evaluate the validity and reliability of information;

These days with the World Wide Web, hydrologic data are incredibly abundant

and readily accessible. While many agencies which provide data, such as

the U.S. Geological Survey, are very meticulous about the quality of the

data they post, not all the available data are collected and processed in a

rigorous way, and background information is often lacking. Through

discussions and short in-class exercises on the various methods of

hydrologic data collection and typical pitfalls of data analysis, students

learn to distinguish good methodology from bad. During longer laboratory

exercises, they must grapple with difficulties in their own data collection

and learn to recognize and cope with problems in making accurate

measurements. Students also critically read parts of Life on the

Mississippi, a semi-fictional work by Mark Twain, and use web and library

resources to check many of the supposed facts that Twain presents about the

river.

 

b. analyze modes of thought, expressive works, arguments, explanations, or

theories;

By critically reading and discussing Life on the Mississippi and a lengthy

essay by John McPhee entitled "Atchafalaya," students get practice

analyzing science-related writing. They must evaluate the purpose and

perspective of each work to determine how these factors influence the

validity of the ideas that are put forth. The imagery and metaphors used

by the authors to describe humans' relationship with nature are also

discussed because these can both reflect and shape the fundamental approach

that is taken to dealing with rivers.

In addition to the readings, many of the exercises done in class and for

the lab involve data analysis, usually using a spreadsheet program.

Students are generally given a data set which they must manipulate and

graph in a variety of ways. They are then asked to analyze these graphs to

answer questions and solve hydrologic problems. In some cases, they must

also determine whether real data actually support certain scientific

generalizations given in the textbook and lecture about the way surface and

groundwater behave. Oftentimes these statements are not supported, and

this teaches students that there are exceptions to many rules, so they must

be careful to let a data set speak for itself rather than relying on

assumptions that may prove to be false for a particular system.

c. recognize possible inadequacies or biases in the evidence given to

support arguments or conclusions; and

As discussed in Part b above and Part d below, during discussions of the

readings and in-class and laboratory exercises, students must evaluate

their own ideas and hypotheses as well as those of others. In the

readings, the personal perspective of authors colors the information they

present. In the exercises, the quality and nature of a data set is

critical in determining whether it can be used to answer a particular

question or test a certain hypothesis. Examination questions are also used

to test how well students are able to distinguish between an argument or

hypothesis that is well supported by evidence and one that is not.

d. advance and support claims.

In the classroom and laboratory, students are often asked to create

hypotheses based on information at hand and then test these ideas. As an

example, one lab exercise involves students working in cooperative groups

to investigate the relationship between the porosity of a material and its

grain size. Each group formulates a hypothesis then determines how they

will test that idea with the materials and equipment provided. Once the

data are collected, the groups must determine whether or not their

hypothesis was supported. If it was not, they revise their statement to

reflect the information learned from the tests that were performed. During

an in-class exercise, students may be asked to decide what would happen in

a particular hydrologic situation and to justify their response. Actual

data is then presented so that they can evaluate how well their idea holds

up.

 

 

 

Sample Syllabus

GEOS 240: Hydrogeology

Fall 2000: lecture TH 12:30-1:50 (PA 101)

lab H 2:00-3:50 (PA 117)

4 credits

About this Course:

This course is an introduction to the study of water from a geological

perspective. During the term, we will go through the different stages of

the water cycle with emphasis on surface water (rivers and streams) and

groundwater. For anyone interested in hydro/environmental geology as a

career, this course is an important first step toward a deeper

understanding of the hydrosphere. Unlike more advanced classes in

hydrogeology, this course does not require knowledge of calculus or

differential equations; but we will be using spreadsheets and basic math

extensively to solve hydrogeologic problems.

This course qualifies as a University Studies course satisfying the

outcomes of the Critical Analysis category. If you successfully complete

the course, you will fulfill the Critical Analysis requirement under the

Unity and Diversity category of the University Studies Program.

 

University Studies Outcomes:

Critical Analysis courses in the University Studies program are devoted to

teaching critical thinking or analytic problem-solving skills. These

skills include the ability to identify sound arguments and distinguish them

from fallacious ones. The objective of these courses is to develop

students' abilities to effectively use the process of critical analysis.

Disciplinary examples should be selected to support the development of

critical analysis skills.

These courses must include requirements and learning activities that

promote students' abilities to...

a. evaluate the validity and reliability of information;

b. analyze modes of thought, expressive works, arguments,

explanations, or theories;

c. recognize possible inadequacies or biases in the evidence given

to support arguments or conclusions; and

d. advance and support claims.

Course activities described throughout the remainder of this syllabus will

be coded to the above list of outcomes by the corresponding letter.

 

Course Goals and Assignments:

The skills goals of this course include developing or increasing your

abilities to: (1) evaluate and analyze hydrologic data (outcomes a, b), (2)

make and interpret graphs of these data using a spreadsheet program

(outcome b), (3) use data to create and test hypotheses (outcomes b, c, d),

(4) critically read and analyze science-related texts (outcome a, b, c).

Because Winona is located right on the Mississippi, we will study different

aspects of this important river system throughout the term. We will

critically read and discuss both fiction and non-fiction works to

investigate the history of the river and people's complex relationships

with it (outcomes a, b, c). (If this seems unusual for a science course,

keep in mind that the majority of what scientists do is read, write, and

speak, so developing your verbal skills is very important regardless of

your career plans!)

Required Textbooks:

APH - Manning, John C. (1996) Applied Principles of Hydrology. 3rd ed.

Prentice-Hall.

LOM - Twain, Mark (1896) Life on the Mississippi. Bantam or Signet Classic.

CON - McPhee, John (1990) Atchafalaya. in The Control of Nature, Noonday

Press.

Other readings will be put on reserve in the library for you to check out

and photocopy as needed. For each of the reading assignments from LOM and

CON, a reading worksheet will be due on the day scheduled for discussion of

that portion of the text. Worksheets will usually be handed out at least a

week before they are due.

Attendance and Due Date Policies:

Attending class is essential for doing well in this course. Every absence

means that you missed out on an important learning experience. We will

occasionally be doing graded exercises in class, and these will not always

be announced in advance, so it behooves you to show up every day. There

will not be any opportunities to make up these exercises if you are absent.

Laboratory and field trip attendance is mandatory.

With regard to homework assignments and labs, I do not accept late work.

Assignments are due at the beginning of class/lab. If you turn in your

work to my mailbox in the Geoscience Dept. office by 5:00 p.m. on the due

date, I will grade the assignment but take off 10 points for lateness.

After that, you will receive a zero for the assignment.

If you have a verifiable illness or family emergency or know in advance

that you will have to miss class or lab, please contact me as soon as

possible. I will work with you on alternate arrangements for making up a

lab, turning in an assignment, and/or excusing a missed in-class exercise.

If you are sick, I will need to see a health center or doctor's note.

Grades:

Exercises 10%

Reading worksheets 10%

Labs 30%

Exams (2) 30%

Final exam 20%

TOTAL 100%

Unless I inform you otherwise at some point during the term, final grades

will be assigned based on the following scale: A = 90-100%, B = 80-89%, C =

70-79%, D = 60-69%, F = <60%.

Academic Dishonesty:

The main reason to go to college is to learn (at least I think so).

Because no one can learn for you, I expect you to do your own work. I will

not tolerate dishonest behavior and will take appropriate measures to

punish anyone caught cheating. At a minimum, all parties involved will

receive a zero for the test or assignment on which cheating occurred. For

more information, read WSU's policy on academic integrity found in the

class schedule and on the web.

Disabilities:

If you have a physical or cognitive disability, please come talk to me as

soon as possible so that we can discuss how best to accommodate your needs.

Daily Schedule:

(any changes will be listed on the course website)

Date Topic Reading

8/29/00 Introduction to class; water cycle APH - Ch. 1

8/31/00 Structure and properties of water APH - Ch. 2

9/5/00 Condensation & precipitation

LAB: Capillarity APH - p. 30-32, Ch. 4

9/7/00 Evaporation & evapotranspiration APH - p. 21-30, 33-37, Ch. 6

9/12/00 Infiltration and soil water;

start exercise on Ch.1 of LOM

LAB: Precipitation APH - Ch. 5

bring LOM to class

9/14/00 Soil water; turn in and discuss LOM exercise "

9/19/00 Review for exam

LAB: Water budget *LOM - Ch. 4-6

9/21/00 EXAM I --

9/26/00 Water quality FIELD TRIP (during class/lab time) APH - Ch. 9

9/28/00 Water quality & chemistry "

10/3/00 Groundwater - porosity and permeability

LAB: Porosity APH - Ch. 7; Fetter p. 69-78

10/5/00 Groundwater - hydraulic head Fetter p. 113-122

10/10/00 Groundwater - Darcy's Law

LAB: Darcy's law and hydraulic conductivity Fetter p. 81-90, 122-125

10/12/00 Groundwater; discussion of LOM reading *LOM - Ch. 8, 9, 17, 25

10/17/00 Groundwater - specific yield

LAB: Specific yield of aquifers Fetter p. 78-81

10/19/00 Groundwater; discussion of LOM reading *LOM - p. 132, Ch.

28, Appendices A & B

10/24/00 Groundwater - flow

LAB: Groundwater flow Fetter p. 125-146

10/26/00 Groundwater - flow "

10/31/00 Review for exam

LAB: groundwater pollution --

11/2/00 EXAM II --

11/7/00 Surface water & runoff

LAB: River hydrographs APH - Ch. 8

11/9/00 Surface water; discussion of CON reading *CON - p. 3-30

11/14/00 Surface water - hydrographs and floods

LAB: Flood recurrence intervals Gordon p. 112-117, 156-175

11/16/00 Surface water; discussion of CON reading *CON - p. 31-55

11/21/00 Video & discussion on Mississippi flood of 1993 --

11/23/00 Thanksgiving Break - NO CLASSES --

11/28/00 Surface water - hydraulic geometry

LAB: Channel geometry and river flow Leopold - p. 59-92

11/30/00 Surface water "

12/5/00 Water & civilization; discussion of CON reading

LAB: none *CON - p. 55-92;

APH - Ch. 10

12/7/00 Review for final exam --

12/11/00 FINAL EXAM - comprehensive

10:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m. --

 

* = reading worksheet on this text due at the beginning of class

On reserve in the library:

Fetter = Fetter, C.W. (2001) Applied Hydrogeology. 4th ed. New Jersey:

Prentice-Hall, 598 pp.

Leopold = Leopold, Luna B. (1997) Water, Rivers, and Creeks. Sausalito, CA:

University Science Books, 185 pp.

Gordon = Gordon, Nancy D., McMahon, Thomas A., and Finlayson, Brian L.

(1992) Stream Hydrology: An Introduction for Ecologists. New York: John

Wiley & Sons, 526 pp.