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Approved by University Studies sub-committee. A2C2 action pending.

University Studies Course Approval Proposal

Unity and Diversity – Critical Analysis

The Department of Mathematics and Statistics proposes the following course for inclusion in University Studies, Unity and Diversity, Critical Analysis at Winona State University. This was approved by the full department on Thursday, January 4, 2001.

Course: Biometry (STAT 305) 3 s.h.

Catalog Description:

An introductory course of statistical applications to the biological sciences. Data reduction, sampling, techniques of estimation, hypothesis testing, and model verification procedures are included. Diversity indices, techniques of species sampling, and other specific biometric methods will be covered. This course satisfies requirements for Critical Analysis within Unity and Diversity as part of the University Studies Program. Prerequisite: MATH 150 or MATH 155 or instructor's permission

This is an existing course, previously approved by A2C2.

Department Contact Person for this course:

Brant Deppa; email bdeppa@winona.edu

General Discussion of Each Objective as it relates to learning activities in STAT 305

**a. evaluate the validity and reliability of information**

Chi-square analysis, measures of association, linear regression, and ANCOVA are used extensively when evaluating the validity and reliability of information statistically. Explicit connections between the terms validity and reliability and these techniques are made in lectures. Explicit questions relating to reliability and validity are included in homework assignments and tests. Reliability and Validity questions are also part of their research article review project.

**b. analyze modes of thought, expressive works, arguments, explanations, or theories**

Several methods for statistically analyzing arguments, explanations, and theories are Chi-square tests of homogeneity and/or independence, regression analysis, survival analysis, logistic regression, ANOVA, multiple comparison procedures, and factorial designs. It is discussed in class how each of these methods can be used to help support and refute various arguments, explanations, and theories. The limitations and incorrect uses of each technique are also strongly emphasized. Examinations and homework assignments are given that make the students consider alternative arguments, explanations, and theories and decide which ones are plausible from a statistical (as well as logical) point of view. For example, if a proposed model predicts negative weights for people with less height, then it has both statistical and logical problems. Also, one of the requirements of the term project is that the students discuss critically the research of others.

c. recognize possible inadequacies or biases in the evidence given to support arguments or conclusions AND

**d. advance and support claims**

For each of the statistical techniques discussed in this course, extensive discussion is made of how it helps the researcher discover inadequacies and biases in their proposed models. Once they discover inadequacies and biases, they can then propose new models and test these new models using these same statistical techniques. Both the examinations and homework have many problems where the students must discuss both numerically and verbally the adequacies, inadequacies, biases, and lack of bias in the models that they are asked to analyze or create themselves. A major focus of the term project and/or research article review is for students to discuss these same issues for models developed by others or for models they develop.

**Statistics 305 - Biometry - 3 s.h**.

**Course Description**:

An introductory course of statistical applications to the biological sciences. Data reduction, sampling, techniques of estimation, hypothesis testing, and model verification procedures are included. Diversity indices, techniques of species sampling, and other specific biometric methods will be covered. This course satisfies requirements for Critical Analysis within Unity and Diversity as part of the University Studies Program. Prerequisite: MATH 150 or MATH 155 or instructor's permission

**Possible Textbooks**:

Daniel, W. __Biostatistics__ (Seventh Edition), Wiley, 1999.

Zar, J. __Biostatistical Analysis__ (Fourth Edition), Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Fisher, L. & van Belle, G. __Biostatistics__, Wiley, 1993.

**Unity and Diversity--Critical Analysis: **Critical Analysis courses in the University
Studies program are devoted to teaching critical thinking or analytic problem-solving
skills. These skills include the ability to identify sound arguments and distinguish them
from fallacious ones. The objective of these courses is to develop students’
abilities to effectively use the process of critical analysis. Disciplinary examples
should be selected to support the development of critical analysis skills.

These courses must include requirements and learning activities that promote students' abilities to

a. evaluate the validity and reliability of information;

b. analyze modes of thought, expressive works, arguments, explanations, or theories;

c. recognize possible inadequacies or biases in the evidence given to support arguments or conclusions; and

d. advance and support claims.

In the description of class topics and requirements below, these objectives in this list are referred to by a-d.

**Topics Covered**:

- Introduction to Biostatistics
- Descriptive Statistics
**(a,c)** - Some Basic Probability Concepts
**(a,c,d)** - Probability Distributions
**(c)**

- Sampling Distributions
**(a,c)** - Estimation
**(a,b,c,d)** - Hypothesis Testing
**(a,b,c,d)** - Analysis of Variance
**(a,b,c,d)** - Regression Analysis and Correlation
**(a,b,c,d)** - Analysis of Categorical Data
**(a,b,c,d)** - Nonparametric Statistics
**(a,b,c,d)** - Additional Topics
**(a,b,c,d)**

- Survival Analysis
- Logistic Regression
- Discriminant Analysis
- MANOVA

**Method of Instruction**: Lecture, group work, case studies, and/or discussion of
examples and computer output.

**Evaluation Procedures**: Possible methods include examinations, quizzes, homework,
computer assignments, and/or a final examination. **(a, b, c, d)** A term project and
research article review may also be assigned. **(a, b, c, d)**

**Approval/Disapproval Recommendations**

Department Recommendation: Approved Disapproved Date

Chairperson Signature __ __Date

Dean's Recommendation: Approved Disapproved Date

Dean's Signature __ __Date

*In the case of a Dean's recommendation to disapprove a proposal, a written rationale
for the recommendation

to disapprove shall be provided to USS.

USS Recommendation: Approved Disapproved Date

University Studies Director's Signature __ __Date

A2C2 Recommendation: Approved Disapproved Date

A2C2 Chairperson Signature __ __Date

Faculty Senate Recommendation: Approved Disapproved Date

FA President's Signature __ __Date

Academic VP's Recommendation: Approved Disapproved Date

VP's Signature __ __Date

President's Decision: Approved Disapproved Date

President's Signature __ __Date