The College of Business conducts research in several different areas of business. Explore published research below from our faculty.

Researcher: Hamid Yeganeh

Journal: International Journal of Health Governance, 24(2), 169-180 (2019)

Research purposes and questions:
To analyze the main global transformations of the healthcare sector and their underlying causes and effects.

Research methodology:
The study focuses on several important trends including the increasing life expectancy and aging, the rise of noncommunicable diseases, the risks of pandemics, medication expenditure, the globalization of healthcare, and technological innovations such as digitization, robotic and nano medicine.

Findings of the study:
The analysis indicates that the world populations will be much older in the near future and the healthcare sector will witness significant growth opportunities. The aging populations will put more pressure on healthcare systems and increase the incidence of noncommunicable diseases. In a globalized world, the risks of global pandemics are expected to increase.

The surge in the medication expenditure will put much pressure on healthcare systems, insurers, patients, employers, and providers. The healthcare sector is characterized by its above-average growth in the United States and much of the developed world. Therefore, the share of healthcare in GDP will continue to rise.

The digitization and globalization of healthcare may involve major disruptions in the location and the type of care. New materials particularly nanoparticles will be used to enhance, the precision, quality, and efficacy of diagnostics, medications, and treatments.

Managerial and business implications of the study:
In a world marked by the forces of globalization, demographic shift, social unrest, economic uncertainty, and technological innovation, healthcare remains an unusually vibrant and rapidly changing sector.

As the healthcare sector is undergoing seismic transformations, governments, businesses, and consumers are trying to control costs and provide quality services to their citizens and employees.

To meet the rising demands in the next decades, it is essential to make sense of the existing and forthcoming developments. Hence, the current paper aims at analyzing the main global transformations of the healthcare sector and their underlying causes and features.

More specifically, the paper focuses on several areas including demographic, medical, clinical, financial, managerial and technological transformations and examines their implications for the healthcare sector.



Researchers: Jing Han, Jian Han, and Daniel Brass

Journal: Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35 (1), 54-71 (2014)

Research purposes and questions:
To analyze the influence of team internal and external network structure on team creativity, and furthermore, the impact of configuration of diversified human resources on the development of these internal and external network structure, as well as team creativity.

Research methodology:
A variety of methods and longitudinal design were used to collect data.

Findings of the study:
The results showed that the interaction of team-bridging social capital with team-bonding social capital was positively and significantly related to team creativity.

Knowledge variety and knowledge disparity had a joint effect on team-bridging social capital, and knowledge separation was negatively related to team-bonding social capital. Moreover, team social capital mediated the effects of knowledge diversity on team creativity.

Managerial and business implications of the study:
Managers should realize the importance of cultivating team social capital and understand the roles of external bridging and internal bonding for team creativity. For teams to be creative, managers can provide training and support to develop and manage both internal and external social relationships.

Managers may also take a proactive view and consider the potential influence of human capital diversity on team social capital when staffing the teams. For instance, managers can facilitate the bridging ties by selecting team members with different knowledge backgrounds and similar levels of working experience.

To promote bonding social capital, managers may encourage the development of shared norms through team training, or encourage members to openly share their understanding about components of effective teamwork. Managers can then have a clear idea of how to configure team members into different teams on the basis of their similar knowledge structures of teamwork, thus promoting bonding social capital.



Researchers: Mussie Tessema and Daniel Sauers

Journal: International Journal of Corporate Governance, 10(2), 149-164 (2019)

Research questions and purposes:

  • What types of corporate values statements do publicly traded companies have?
  • What are the most common types of corporate values statements?
  • How can corporate values statements be categorized?
  • What are the theoretical and practical implications of the findings?
Research methodology:
This study uses corporate values statements from 249 companies that are listed on the New York Stock Exchange. These corporate values statements were extracted from the websites of the sample companies.

The 249 companies had 1,419 values statements, which were then categorized into 51 value classes. The 51 value classes were then grouped into seven value dimensions. Further, the sample companies were grouped into the following three sectors: primary (extraction of raw materials, agriculture, etc.), secondary (manufacturing), and tertiary (service).

About 8 percent of the sample companies were from primary sector, 68 percent of the sample companies were from the secondary sector, and 24 percent of the sample companies were from tertiary sector.

Findings of the study:
This study identifies 51 corporate value classes, which are then grouped into the following seven value dimensions: commitment to customers, commitment to stakeholders, commitment to employees, commitment to diversity, commitment to integrity, entrepreneurship, and social responsibility.

The frequently cited values classes across the sample of companies starting from the top recurring values are integrity, innovation, and customer focus. Besides, the two most popular corporate value dimensions are commitment to integrity (85%) and commitment to customers (64%).

This study found that all sample companies have publicized corporate values statements (Table 2). While the median is 5, the mode is 5. On the average, the sample companies had about 6 publicized corporate value statements.

Managerial and business implications of the study:
The study has both practical and theoretical implications. One of the important implications of the current study is that while having too few publicized corporate values statements may not capture all the desired behaviors and unique dimensions of the company, having too many publicized corporate values statements may get employees overwhelmed and may lose their overall impact.

Another implication of the study is that if corporate value are to have the required impact, companies (leaders) should clearly define and explain corporate values statements, make sure they have measurable standards and few key behavioral attributes, discuss them in meetings and writings, communicate them internally and externally, promote them on the organizational website, make sure leaders embody them, take accountability to live the values and set an example (be good role models), support employees by showing them respect and providing resources needed to do their job successfully, and reinforce them with consistency.

Researchers: Kimberly Mungaray and Nancy Curtin (Millikin University)

Journal: International Journal of Business Communication, 2019

Research purposes and questions:
The study utilized the raw data from a previous case study that examined the raw focus group data from a previous case study that demonstrated the existence of a heteronormative leadership paradigm, personified in the heteronormative ideal leader who is strong, agentic, charismatic, and typically white and male.

The subject of the case study was a small public accounting firm in the mid-west United States. The purpose of this study was (a) to see if themes discovered through the preliminary analysis could be validated utilizing communication methodologies and (b) to explore more specifically, how language and communication construct identities and thus, if and how these identities construct and perpetuate the heteronormative leadership paradigm, which was discovered to exist during the preliminary phases of this research.

Research Methodology:
The methodology grounding the preliminary analysis performed by Mungaray was feminist phronesis. Curtin independently analyzed the data using a methodology that combines elements of discourse analysis and conversation analysis.

This analysis corroborated the initial findings and expanded our understanding of how the firm is creating and perpetuating identities through catch phrases and language. The theme of super partner presented in the preliminary research was validated by the themes superior vs. subordinate and knower vs. discoverer/learner.

Another theme found in the preliminary research was the objectification of communication. This mechanism was found to perpetuate the current leadership norm and subjugate individuals. The concertized ideal of "communicating like a partner" effectively created a border that excluded others from becoming a partner.

The original research demonstrated the reification of communication. This study demonstrates the power language has in perpetuating an embedded heteronormative leadership identity regardless of the intentions of the interlocutors.

Despite Joe's (the partner of the CPA firm) desire to have a "pro-woman" firm, the catch phrases and language referring to leadership used often in organizational culture and interactions appear to perpetuate a heteronormative paradigm.

Business implications of the study:
This research furthers our understanding of what identities are constructed through language and catch phrases and how language and identities function to create and perpetuate a heteronormative leadership culture within the accounting context.

This research is important in light of the growing trend to blame women for opting out of pursuing top leadership positions. Organizational culture and the larger cultural context of what it means to be a leader can be problematic to identifying and accepting females as leaders.

If organizational culture is conditioning both men and women to understand leadership potential through a heteronormative and masculine lens, then women who do not perceive themselves as masculine will opt out because they do not see themselves as leaders.

Research shows that self-perception is an important factor in one's ability to seek leadership roles, however, little research has been done on how epistemological bias may be perpetuating a culture that underpins collective perceptions.




Researchers: Jana Craft and Sarah Schake

Journal: International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR), 7(4), 1-14 (2019)

Research purposes and questions:
To examine the manufacturing industry and recruiting challenges from a nationwide, statewide and localized focus area.

Research methodology:
Representatives from ten manufacturers voluntarily participated in a qualitative study to determine current recruiting challenges and tools used in manufacturer recruiting.

Survey respondents were asked open-ended questions about recruiting challenges faced by their business; participants were free to answer in an much or as little detail as desired.

Face-to-face interviews were used to expand on the topics of these survey questions and responses.

Findings of the study:
Nearly all HR managers ranked recruiting challenges as a top concern for their companies but for various reasons.

Challenges ranged from applicants possessing a lack of knowledge about working for a union; low unemployment rates forcing companies to "chase" applicants; redefining the employee-as-customer experiences; and finding qualified workers and upgrading machinery.

Employers ranked other challenges ahead of recruiting such as increasing sales and retaining workers.

Fifty-six percent of survey respondents indicated that job opening within their company were expected to increase in the next five years. While 56 percent of respondents also indicated that they were optimistic about their company's future recruiting efforts, the remaining 44 percent were either neutral or pessimistic.

Managerial/business implications of the study:
While research to understand where manufacturers' recruiting target market would be needed, firms could consider involvement with high school and college robotics teams, Boy Scouts and Girl Scout troops, Skills USA chapters, and military veterans' organizations.

Another strategy that is customer-focuses for a younger applicant demographic is student loan payback and investments by the company to pay for post-secondary education or training.

Manufacturers should take a customer-centric approach to recruiting by implementing a variety of strategies focuses on fulfilling a value proposition for applicants.

By treating the recruiting process as a sales venture and job applicants as another type of customer, job vacancies can be filled with a skilled workforce.

Researcher: Jana Craft

Journal: SAGE Research Methods Cases (2018)

Research purposes and questions:
  • To share her experience in determining which method was appropriate for her research question
  • To showcase key aspects of case study design utilizing focus groups
  • To highlight the emotional toll case study design often takes on the researcher
Research methodology:
This case study highlights several aspects of my doctoral research in ethical business culture within a large non-profit organization in the human services industry.

I used a single-case descriptive design utilizing focus groups to gain an in-depth understanding of an organization's ethical business culture. The research examined a single phenomenon: the consistency between espoused and enacted values-based decision-making.

Findings of the study:
The study's findings indicated the following eight research practicalities for consideration to current or future researchers when using a qualitative design: Gatekeeping, ethical considerations, focus group research in action, using technology for coding and access, defend your design, honesty and anonymity, emotional intelligence, and the light bulb moment.

Managerial and business implications of the study:
Care should be taken in advance to prepare for undertaking research using a qualitative method in terms of physical time and emotional toll. Gaining entry and being clear up-front what you will and will not do are key to building trust necessary for honest participation.

Being diligent with a human subject proposal can benefit you in the long run and save time overall. Planning a question route and then being flexible when it veers off course are necessary, as is taking advantage of the benefits of using qualitative software whenever possible.

If you are convinced that a qualitative method- or several in combination- are the right avenue for your research, do not be afraid to stand up to your dissertation chair of thesis committee and defend your choice.

Take care to treat the information gleaned from interviews and focus groups as the prize that it is. People are trusting you with their personal thoughts and feelings, and researchers should respect emotional risk involved with this disclosure.

Anonymity, eliminating personal identifiers, and scrubbing data when permission is revoked are all important facets of this method. Cultural barriers and difficulty in communicating to diverse populations can negatively affect a researcher's ability to interpret meaning and remain unbiased. so keep that in mind as you determine your research questions.

Finally, understand that if you are low in emotional intelligence or regularly find it difficult to interpret meaning elicited from non-verbal communication, this may not be your best choice for a research method. The emotional toll of wading through the sea of emotion that comes with human subject research can be taxing, but the reward is a deeper understanding of your research.

Researcher: Jana Craft

Journal: Journal of Business Ethics, 149 (1), 127-145 (2018)

Research purposes and questions:

  • To what extent were gaps found between espoused and enacted values?
  • To what extent did incongruent values impact the ethical business culture?
Research methodology:
A single-case descriptive qualitative study (Merriam 1998; Smith 1978; Yin 2009) of the ethical business culture of a large nonprofit organization was conducted.

Three sources of evidence were used to collect data on values-based decision making within the organization: documentation (Fraenkel et al. 2012; Hodder 1994; Jones 1996; Miller 1997), focuses groups (Krueger and Casey 2009) and existing survey data.

Findings of the study:
More congruent values were found than incongruent values. In essence, the majority of what was said (espoused) was practiced within the organization (enacted) and subscribed to by both hierarchical levels and differing locations.

Congruent values, both negative and positive, were found. Positive congruent values contributed to the strong sense of commitment and dedication to the organization expressed throughout the study, which positively impacted the ethical business culture.

Negative congruent values threatened to undermine the existing ethical business culture. Incongruent values negatively impacted individual morale and location-specific motivation more than the overall ethical business culture. In this section findings are applied to the five components of the ethical business cultures model in order to understnad how the values impacted each area.

The four components of the values-based decision-making model are graphed visually to illustrate which component was enacted and activated most, but to also show the prevalence of the four components in the culture, which would show support for a healthy ethical business culture.

Four key findings within the ethical business culture are discussed: personal values, reputation as an industry leader, evidence of a strong culture and mission as heart.

Managerial and business implications of the study:
This case study explored the impact of values and mission on ethical business culture. The mission was described as the "heart" of the organization that was both "lived and breathed." Dedication to the mission and a commitment to supporting the core values were vital within the culture.

Even though employees spoke of "losing our heart," but could not come to consensus on the heart of Ability, Inc., the findings were clear to the researcher, an unbiased outsider: the heart of Ability, Inc. was the mission.

The mission was the common thread that wove itself within each employee, nurturing compassion for their vulnerable adult clients and cultivating relationships with their families. The common thread of mission was present at each location and at every level of the organization in words and actions.

Helping clients make meaningful contributions to society and, in turn, receiving their thanks and gratitude motivated underpaid and over-worked staff members to press on and hope for better. A workforce grounded in ethics that consisted of employees who possessed a strong commitment to the organization's mission overcame the negative impact of incongruent values on the ethical business culture.

Researchers: Jessica Wang, Mark Wrolstad, and Scott Chiu

Journal: Journal of Finance and Accountancy, 2017, 22: 31-44

Research purposes and questions:
To analyze the relationship between employee wellness and firm stock market performance

Research methodology:
This research explores rigorously the wisdom of investing in Koop Award winners by explicitly considering the aspect of risk. CAPM model, Fama and French three factor model, and propensity score matching are used to calculate different versions of risk-adjusted excess returns.

Findings of the study:
This paper finds that the monthly stock returns of Koop Award winners outperform both the monthly value-weighted market return and the S&P 500 monthly return index for the years 1994 through 2015.

Further, to control the effect of risk on stock returns, risk-adjusted excess returns are calculated cased upon both the CAPM model and the Fama-French three factor model. The Koop Award winners are found to have significantly positive risk-adjusted excess returns.

This paper also shows that Koop Award winners outperform their peers with similar firm characteristics using the propensity score matching method.

Managerial and business implications of the study:
Well-developed wellness programs will result in improved health, happiness, motivation, and workforce performance of the firm's employees.

With improved health, it is also expected that the reduction in medical expenditures will benefit the firm's bottom line and ultimately the investment performance of the firm.

Researchers: Scott Chiu, Po-Chang Chen (Miami University) and Jessica Wang

Journal: Journal of Finance and Accountancy, 2019, 25 (in press)

Research purposes and questions:
The paper proposes a new estimation approach to cross-sectional accrual models with the objective of reducing the measurement error in discretionary accruals resulting from violation of the homogeneous accrual generating process in an industry.

Research methodology:
The proposed cycle approach features a two-step implementation of discretionary accruals estimation. The first step measures the within-industry variation of firms' operating cycles, which captures the heterogeneity of accrual generating process in a given industry.

The second step then applies those operating cycle variations to the estimation of discretionary accruals by allowing the regression coefficients on a key accrual determinant, i.e., sales changes, to differ across firms with varied operating cycles.

Findings of the study:
Applying our proposed approach to four commonly used cross-sectional accrual models: Jones model, modified Jones model, performance-matched Jones model and performance-matched modified Jones model.

The paper shows that the absolute values of discretionary accruals are consistently smaller than those estimated using the traditional approach without the cycle adjustment, especially in industries where firms have more heterogeneous accrual generating process, as measured by operating cycles.

This finding indicates a reduction in measurement error from the model estimation perspective. To demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach, the paper further tests and finds that cycle-adjusted discretionary accruals, versus unadjusted discretionary accruals, exhibit a stronger explanatory power for earnings management as proxied by the SEC Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Releases (AAER).

Together, these empirical findings support the notion that they cycle approach improves the estimation of discretionary accruals from both internal (i.e., reduced measurement error) and external (i.e., enhanced prediction of earnings management) perspectives.

Managerial and business implications of the study:
Discretionary accruals have been widely used in the accounting and finance literature to examine a firm's earning management behavior of earnings quality.

This paper contributes to the ever-growing literature on accrual models by proposing a theory-based and easily-implementable approach to improving the estimation of discretionary accruals and helps people have a better understanding of earning management behavior.

Researcher: Brian Winrow


Journal: Journal of Accounting Education, 37, 1-12

Research purpose and question:
Is there a significant relationship between the frequency of academic misconduct by undergraduate students and their perceptions as to the utility of ethical behavior in the workplace after controlling for Social Desirability Bias?

Research methodology:
A survey was administered 720 business students. A PLS-SEM path model was constructed using SmartPLS. The measurement model was validated by factor loading coefficients >=.50; average variance explained >=50%, and internal reliability coefficients >=.70 for all of the latest variables. Results indicated that each of the four types of cheating would increase when the ranking of ethics decreased in importance.

The findings of the study:
As shown in the below model, the study concludes that the frequency of cheating in each of the four categories examined (planned cheating, spontaneous cheating, plagiarism, and improper use of resources) was predicated to increase for every standardized increase in rank of ethics toward less important. The relationship existed even when testing for social desirability bias.

Business implications of the study:
From an applied perspective, the results serve to better promote cheating prevention efforts. From a theoretical perspective, this research provides scholars with a better understanding of the value that is placed on cheating. 

This value ultimately underpins the motivation behind academic cheating as it is related to students' perceptions of the utility of ethics in the workplace.

Researcher: Diane R. May

Journal: Journal of Legal Studies Education, 2014, 31(2): 233-248

Research questions and purposes:
When taking the initial legal environment course in a business school, students generally have little background in the law. Students struggle not only with the new vocabulary but also with learning how the law works.

It is in this environment, that the author purposes the use of a specific teaching strategy taught in schools of education but not law schools. Scaffolding is a teaching strategy where an instructor provides structured support in an activity to help the student get to the next level of learning.

It is typically used in a task that is "just beyond the level of what the learned can do alone."A scaffold activity builds on prior knowledge and helps students internalize new information. Scaffolding exercises in a legal environment course has two rewards: they build on a student's acquired knowledge to increase student knowledge, as well as teach students how to apply the law to problem-solving.

The research methodology:
This article describes scaffolding as a teaching strategy and then demonstrates its application in a legal environment course through an example developed by the author. Through scaffolding a relatively short hypothetical problem, myriad contract concepts were reinforced and fed into the student's long-term memory.

In addition, students could experience the pattern of legal analysis- identifying the applicable law and applying it to the facts. Through repeated exposure to this analysis, students at some point will begin to intuitively think in this way. At that point that scaffold can be removed. Students will then be able to evolve into higher thinking levels.

Findings of the study:
Student feedback to scaffolding was overwhelmingly positive. In an informal survey of 116 legal environment students, 90% agreed or strongly agreed that the scaffolding exercise helped them learn legal concepts.

Business and managerial implications:
Students who are successful in their law courses in business school will have an improved ability to recognize legal issues in the workplace and think through the potential solutions and consequences of actions taken.

Further, students will better recognize when it will be important to bring in legal assistance to resolve such issues.

Research impact:
As a result of this study, the scaffolding method was adopted in the digital homework materials of the nation's best-selling business law textbook. Prof. May is the author of many of these digital materials.

As a result of this work, she received the annual Master Teacher Award from her discipline's national Academy of Legal Studies in Business, as well as a research award from the Academy's Journal of Legal Studies Education.

Researcher: Lawrence P. Schrenk

Journal: Journal of Business, Economics & Finance 1.4 (2012): 5-18

Research questions, purposes, and problems:
This study models the sensitivity of option versus equity compensation to changes in a firm's investment risk, dividends and bankruptcy costs.

Research method:
Optimal executive compensation is determined by the Nash equilibrium of a two-player game in which the executive chooses the investment, financing and payout policies of the firm, while the shareholders set compensation policy.

The model predicts that firms with higher investment risk and higher costs of bankruptcy will use relatively more equity compensation, while firms paying a higher dividend will use relatively more option compensation.

Business and managerial implications:
The study helps to explain the diversity in executive compensation mechanisms relative to different firm policies.

Researcher: Lawrence P. Schrenk

Journal: Journal of Finance Issues 16.2 (2017): 47-57

Research questions, purposes, and problems:
This paper employs a real option model to analyze price dispersion in highly competitive markets. Explanations of price dispersion typically assume monopolistic competition, so these fail to explain price ranges in markets closely approximating the conditions of perfect competition.

Research method:
This is a theoretical paper that develops a real options model of price dispersion in competitive markets.

Given standard economics principles, we expect price dispersion to decrease and prices to converge to an equilibrium price as markets become more efficient. Unfortunately, the empirical evidence strongly contradicts this conclusion- while prices may narrow, they certainly do not converge.

This model offers an explanation of the remaining price dispersion in such markets by relying on only simple assumptions. It analyzes price setting as a real option: if prices are rigid, setting a price is giving consumers a real option to purchase the product at that price for some period of time.

Business and managerial implications:
This model suggests that price dispersion is a natural phenomenon (not a market anomaly or imperfection) associated with market uncertainty requiring only a minimal and generally accepted set of assumptions that apply to approximately competitive markets.

Researcher: Lawrence P. Schrenk

Journal: In Robert Kolb, ed. The Sage Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Soceity. 2nd ed. Sage, 2018, pp. 3514-3517

Research questions, purposes, and problems:
This entry surveys the ethical analysis of the concept of usury from the ancient world through the contemporary period.

Research method:
This is an intellectual survey in the history of business ethics.

The term usury has had two distinct, but related, meanings: Originally it meant any form of interest on debt, but as interest became more socially acceptable, especially since the "Commercial Revolution" beginning in the 13th century, its meaning shifted to refer to excessive interest (though what constitutes excessive remains a matter of controversy and can change over time history, so that what was unjust usury in an early period might, in a later one, be considered normal and moral business practice).

Business and managerial implications:
The use of debt financing in ubiquitous in the contemporary world, so an understanding of its moral implications is essential for ethical business practice.